提取指定的PDF表格保存到Excel

提取PDF表格


摘要:本文介绍一个提取PDF中的表格内容的程序。首先,程序给出使用示例,最后给出代码开发思路及细节。

作者:yooongchun
微信:18217235290

0.需求说明

  • PDF中存在大量表格,需要从表格中提取出指定类型的表格,这些表格主要通过表头和表中的关键字来确定。

1.PDF示例

2.提取规则

提取规则通过Excel指定,如下示例:

在这里插入图片描述

3.提取结果示例

提取的结果保存在Excel中,结果如下:

在这里插入图片描述

4.使用方法

  • 首先准备好Demo.xlsx文件(下载),同时下载PDFparser.exe 程序(下载),将二者放在同一个目录下,然后将PDF文件准备好放在任意文件夹xxx中,将xxx文件夹和以上两个文件放在同一目录下,双击运行程序即可。

5.代码说明

  • 程序使用pdfplumber模块进行PDF解析以获取表格和文本
  • 程序使用xlwt模块和xlrd 模块进行Excel的读写
  • 程序使用多进程+多线程模式加快速度
  • 程序使用re模块来使用Python正则表达式

6.代码细节

  • PDF解析

    
    # 该类用来实现PDF表格和文字内容的提取
    class Extractor(object):
        def __init__(self, file_path, rules):
            '''
            :param file_path:PDF file path
            :param rules: extract rules
            '''
            self.file_path = file_path
            self.rules = rules
    
        # 加载PDF文件
        def parse_pages(self):
            try:
                pages = []
                pdf = pdfplumber.open(self.file_path)
                print('parse file:{}   page num:{}'.format(os.path.basename(self.file_path), len(pdf.pages)))
                for index, page in enumerate(pdf.pages):
                    tables = page.extract_tables()
                    if len(tables) < 1:
                        continue
                    pages.append({'text': page.extract_text(), 'tables': tables, 'page': index + 1})
                return pages
            except Exception as e:
                print(e)
            return None
    
        # 提取特定类型表头的表格,规则有rules参数指定
        def extract_table_with_specific_header(self, pages):
            if pages is None or len(pages) < 1:
                # print('no-page...')
                return
            target_tables = []
            # 遍历所有页面
            for index, page in enumerate(pages):
                text = page['text']
                tables = page['tables']
                page_id = page['page'] - 1
                lines = re.split(r'\n+', text)
                # 遍历当前页面的所有行
                for ind, line in enumerate(lines):
                    # 判定表头符合规则的表格
                    if sum([1 for rule in self.rules['in-header'] if re.search(rule, line)]) > 0 and \
                            sum([1 for rule in self.rules['not-in-header'] if re.search(rule, line)]) == 0:
                        if ind >= len(lines) - 1:
                            break
                        cnt = ind + 1
                        next = lines[ind + 1]
                        if ind < len(lines) - 2 and re.search(r'单位[::]', next):
                            next = lines[ind + 2]
                            cnt += 1
                        for ti, table in enumerate(tables):
                            if not table:
                                continue
                            first = ''.join([word for word in table[0] if word is not None])
                            # 表格是完整的情况
                            if first == re.sub(r'\s+', '', next):
                                tables[ti] = False
                                if index + 1 < len(pages) and len(pages[index + 1]['tables']) > 0:
                                    table_next = pages[index + 1]['tables'][0]
                                    fi = ''.join([item for item in table_next[0] if item is not None])
                                    if re.sub(r'\s+', '', fi) in re.sub(r'\s+', '', pages[index + 1]['text'][1]):
                                        table += table_next
                                target_tables.append({'page': page_id + 1, 'method': 'exact', 'table': table,
                                                      'table-id': str(page_id + 1) + str(ti + 1)})
                            # 表格可能不完整的情况
                            elif first in re.sub(r'\s+', '', next):
                                tables[ti] = False
                                if index + 1 < len(pages) and len(pages[index + 1]['tables']) > 0:
                                    table_next = pages[index + 1]['tables'][0]
                                    fi = ''.join([item for item in table_next[0] if item is not None])
                                    if re.sub(r'\s+', '', fi) in re.sub(r'\s+', '', pages[index + 1]['text'][1]):
                                        table += table_next
                                target_tables.append({'page': page_id + 1, 'method': 'guess', 'table': table,
                                                      'table-id': str(page_id + 1) + '-' + str(ti + 1)})
            return target_tables
    
        # 提取表格中存在指定类型信息的表格,规则由参数rules指定
        def extract_table_with_specific_info(self, pages):
            if pages is None or len(pages) < 1:
                # print('no-page...')
                return
            target_tables = []
            for index, page in enumerate(pages):
                tables = page['tables']
                page_id = page['page'] - 1
                for ti, table in enumerate(tables):
                    st = str(table)
                    if len(self.rules['in-table']) == sum([1 for in_tab in self.rules['in-table'] if in_tab in st]):
                        if len(self.rules['not-in-table']) == sum(
                                [1 for not_tab in self.rules['not-in-table'] if not not_tab in st]):
                            target_tables.append({'page': page_id + 1, 'method': 'content-in-table', 'table': table,
                                                  'table-id': str(page_id + 1) + str(ti + 1)})
            return target_tables
    
        # 提取存在指定关键词的页面,关键词有rules指定
        def extract_specific_page(self, pages):
            if pages is None or len(pages) < 1:
                # print('no-page...')
                return
            target_pages = []
            for index, page in enumerate(pages):
                text = page['text']
                page_id = page['page']
                if len(self.rules['in-page']) == sum([1 for rule in self.rules['in-page'] if re.search(rule, text)]):
                    target_pages.append({'page': page_id, 'text': text})
            return target_pages
    
        # 执行以上所有过程,返回提取结果
        def run(self):
            pages = self.parse_pages()
            if pages is None or len(pages) < 1:
                print('parse pdf error:', os.path.basename(self.file_path))
                return
            try:
                target_1 = self.extract_table_with_specific_header(pages)
                target_2 = self.extract_table_with_specific_info(pages)
                target_3 = self.extract_specific_page(pages)
                tables = []
                s = []
                for table in target_1:
                    if table['table-id'] not in s:
                        s.append(table['table-id'])
                        tables.append(table)
                for table in target_2:
                    if table['table-id'] not in s:
                        s.append(table['table-id'])
                        tables.append(table)
                return tables, target_3
            except Exception as e:
                print(e)
    
    
  • 加载Excel和缓存结果

    # 该类用来加载Excel,遍历地址获取PDF文件路径及缓存结果
    class Util():
        def __init__(self, folder, out, demo):
            self.folder = folder
            self.out = out
            self.demo = demo
    
        # 加载Demo文件,获取rules
        def load_demo(self):
            print('load demo Excel:', os.path.basename(self.demo))
            book = xlrd.open_workbook(self.demo)
            sheet = book.sheet_by_index(0)
            in_header = sheet.col_values(0, 2, sheet.nrows)
            not_in_header = sheet.col_values(1, 2, sheet.nrows)
            in_table = sheet.col_values(2, 2, sheet.nrows)
            not_in_table = sheet.col_values(3, 2, sheet.nrows)
            in_page = sheet.col_values(4, 2, sheet.nrows)
            rules = {'in-header': in_header, 'not-in-header': not_in_header, 'in-table': in_table,
                     'not-in-table': not_in_table, 'in-page': in_page}
            for k, v in rules.items():
                rules[k] = [i for i in v if not re.sub(r'\s+', '', i) == '']
            return rules
    
        # 加载PDF文件,采用迭代遍历
        def load_folder(self):
            print('load folder:', self.folder)
            paths = []
            for dirpath, dirnames, filenames in os.walk(self.folder):
                for file in filenames:
                    path = os.path.join(dirpath, file)
                    if os.path.isfile(path) and (
                            os.path.splitext(path)[1] == '.pdf' or os.path.splitext(path)[1] == '.PDF'):
                        paths.append(path)
            return paths
    
        # 缓存结果
        def save_tmp(self, info, name, code, year):
            print('save tmp file:', name)
            if not os.path.isdir('tmp'):
                os.mkdir('tmp')
            tables = info[0]
            pages = info[1]
    
            # Excel样式
            style = xlwt.XFStyle()
            # background color
            pattern = xlwt.Pattern()
            pattern.pattern = xlwt.Pattern.SOLID_PATTERN
            pattern.pattern_fore_colour = 5
            style.pattern = pattern
            # border
            borders = xlwt.Borders()
            borders.left = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            borders.right = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            borders.top = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            borders.bottom = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            style.borders = borders
            # font
            font = xlwt.Font()
            font.name = 'Times New Roman'
            font.bold = True
            font.underline = False
            font.italic = False
            style.font = font
    
            # sheet style-2
            style2 = xlwt.XFStyle()
            # background color
            pattern = xlwt.Pattern()
            pattern.pattern = xlwt.Pattern.SOLID_PATTERN
            pattern.pattern_fore_colour = 22
            style2.pattern = pattern
            # border
            borders = xlwt.Borders()
            borders.left = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            borders.right = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            borders.top = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            borders.bottom = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            style2.borders = borders
            # font
            font = xlwt.Font()
            font.name = 'Times New Roman'
            font.bold = True
            font.underline = False
            font.italic = False
            style2.font = font
    
            # sheet style-3
            style3 = xlwt.XFStyle()
            # background color
            pattern2 = xlwt.Pattern()
            pattern2.pattern = xlwt.Pattern.SOLID_PATTERN
            pattern2.pattern_fore_colour = 3
            style3.pattern = pattern2
            # border
            borders = xlwt.Borders()
            borders.left = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            borders.right = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            borders.top = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            borders.bottom = xlwt.Borders.THICK
            style3.borders = borders
            # font
            font = xlwt.Font()
            font.name = 'Times New Roman'
            font.bold = True
            font.underline = False
            font.italic = False
            style3.font = font
    
            # 将数据写如Excel
            book = xlwt.Workbook()
            sheet1 = book.add_sheet('tables')
            sheet2 = book.add_sheet('pages')
    
            for ind, page in enumerate(pages):
                page_num = page['page']
                text = page['text']
                sheet2.write(ind, 0, name)
                sheet2.write(ind, 1, code)
                sheet2.write(ind, 2, year)
                sheet2.write(ind, 3, page_num)
                sheet2.write(ind, 4, 'search page')
                sheet2.write(ind, 5, text, style)
    
            # save table
            i = 0
            for ti, table in enumerate(tables):
                page = table['page']
                method = table['method']
                table_content = table['table']
                if method == 'exact':
                    sty = style
                elif method == 'guess':
                    sty = style2
                else:
                    sty = style3
                for index, row in enumerate(table_content):
                    sheet1.write(i, 0, name)
                    sheet1.write(i, 1, code)
                    sheet1.write(i, 2, year)
                    sheet1.write(i, 3, page)
                    sheet1.write(i, 4, method)
                    for ind, one in enumerate(row):
                        sheet1.write(i, 5 + ind, one if one is not None else '', sty)
                    i += 1
                i += 1
    
            book.save('tmp\\' + name + '.tmp.xls')
    
    
  • 执行提取的函数

    
    # 单个文件运行的完整流程,从加载文件到缓存结果的全过程,如果只想使用单线程运行程序,则在主函数中调用该函数即可
    def run(rules, file, util):
        extractor = Extractor(file, rules)
        info = extractor.run()
        code = re.findall(r'\d{6}', os.path.basename(file))[0]
        year = re.findall(r'\d{8}', os.path.basename(file))[0]
        if info is None or len(info[0]) < 1:
            with open('noResult.txt', 'a', encoding='utf-8') as fp:
                fp.write(file + '\n')
        else:
            util.save_tmp(info, os.path.basename(file), code, year)
    
    
  • 多进程+多线程

    # -------------------
    # 以下两个函数是为了加快执行速度而启用的多线程+多进程模式,计算密集型任务状态下进程越多越好(不多于机器CPU核心数)
    # -----------------
    # 多线程:每次会启动跟files数量相对应的线程来执行,但只能执行在一个CPU核心中
    # multiple threads
    def batch_processor(func, rules, files, util):
        thread_pool = []
        for index, file in enumerate(files):
            th = threading.Thread(target=func, args=(rules, file, util))
            # print('running thread:', th.name)
            th.start()
            thread_pool.append(th)
        for th in thread_pool:
            # print('waiting for thread:', th.name)
            th.join()
    
    
    # 多进程:启动4个进程执行,每个进程中运行多线程,CPU有几个核心就使用几个进程,一般机器多为双核心四进程,此时4进程可占满CPU运行,效能最大
    # multiple processors
    def multi_processor_run(func, sub_func, files, rules, util):
        pool = multiprocessing.Pool(processes=4)
        cnt = 0
        batch_size = 5
        while cnt < len(files):
            rear = cnt + batch_size
            if rear > len(files):
                rear = len(files)
            batch = files[cnt + 0:rear]
            pool.apply_async(func, (sub_func, rules, batch, util))
            cnt += batch_size
        pool.close()
        pool.join()
    
    
  • 整理结果并保存

    # 该函数将缓存在本地目录tmp文件夹下的所有临时Excel文件结果整合到一个Excel中
    # re-format result
    def re_format(sheet_size):
        print('re-format file...')
        files = os.listdir('tmp')
        paths = []
        new_book = xlwt.Workbook()
        for file in files:
            if os.path.isfile(os.path.join('tmp', file)) and '.tmp.xls' in file:
                paths.append(os.path.join('tmp', file))
    
        style = xlwt.XFStyle()
        # background color
        pattern = xlwt.Pattern()
        pattern.pattern = xlwt.Pattern.SOLID_PATTERN
        pattern.pattern_fore_colour = 5
        style.pattern = pattern
        # border
        borders = xlwt.Borders()
        borders.left = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        borders.right = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        borders.top = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        borders.bottom = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        style.borders = borders
        # font
        font = xlwt.Font()
        font.name = 'Times New Roman'
        font.bold = True
        font.underline = False
        font.italic = False
        style.font = font
    
        # sheet style-2
        style2 = xlwt.XFStyle()
        # background color
        pattern = xlwt.Pattern()
        pattern.pattern = xlwt.Pattern.SOLID_PATTERN
        pattern.pattern_fore_colour = 22
        style2.pattern = pattern
        # border
        borders = xlwt.Borders()
        borders.left = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        borders.right = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        borders.top = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        borders.bottom = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        style2.borders = borders
        # font
        font = xlwt.Font()
        font.name = 'Times New Roman'
        font.bold = True
        font.underline = False
        font.italic = False
        style2.font = font
    
        # sheet style-3
        style3 = xlwt.XFStyle()
        # background color
        pattern2 = xlwt.Pattern()
        pattern2.pattern = xlwt.Pattern.SOLID_PATTERN
        pattern2.pattern_fore_colour = 3
        style3.pattern = pattern2
        # border
        borders = xlwt.Borders()
        borders.left = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        borders.right = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        borders.top = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        borders.bottom = xlwt.Borders.THICK
        style3.borders = borders
        # font
        font = xlwt.Font()
        font.name = 'Times New Roman'
        font.bold = True
        font.underline = False
        font.italic = False
        style3.font = font
    
        tab_cnt = 1
        page_cnt = 1
        tab_rows = 0
        page_rows = 0
        sheet2 = new_book.add_sheet('pages-' + str(0))
        sheet1 = new_book.add_sheet('tables-' + str(0))
        sheet1.write(0, 0, 'File')
        sheet1.write(0, 1, 'Code')
        sheet1.write(0, 2, 'Date')
        sheet1.write(0, 3, 'Page')
        sheet1.write(0, 4, 'Method')
        sheet2.write(0, 0, 'File')
        sheet2.write(0, 1, 'Code')
        sheet2.write(0, 2, 'Date')
        sheet2.write(0, 3, 'Page')
        sheet2.write(0, 4, 'Method')
    
        for index, file in enumerate(paths):
            book = xlrd.open_workbook(file)
            sheet = book.sheet_by_name('tables')
            sheet_pages = book.sheet_by_name('pages')
            tab_rows += sheet.nrows
            page_rows += sheet_pages.nrows
    
            for row in range(sheet.nrows):
                if len(sheet.row_values(row)) < 5:
                    sty1 = None
                elif sheet.row_values(row)[4] == 'exact':
                    sty1 = style
                elif sheet.row_values(row)[4] == 'guess':
                    sty1 = style2
                elif sheet.row_values(row)[4] == 'content-in-table':
                    sty1 = style3
                else:
                    sty1 = None
                for col, val in enumerate(sheet.row_values(row)):
                    if col > 4:
                        if sty1 is not None:
                            sheet1.write(tab_cnt, col, val, sty1)
                        else:
                            sheet1.write(tab_cnt, col, val)
                    else:
                        sheet1.write(tab_cnt, col, val)
                tab_cnt += 1
            tab_cnt += 1
            for row in range(sheet_pages.nrows):
                if len(sheet_pages.row_values(row)) < 5:
                    sty2 = None
                elif sheet_pages.row_values(row)[4] == 'exact':
                    sty2 = style
                elif sheet_pages.row_values(row)[4] == 'guess':
                    sty2 = style2
                elif sheet_pages.row_values(row)[4] == 'content-in-table':
                    sty2 = style3
                else:
                    sty2 = None
                for col, val in enumerate(sheet_pages.row_values(row)):
                    if col > 4:
                        if sty2 is not None:
                            sheet2.write(page_cnt, col, val, sty2)
                        else:
                            sheet2.write(page_cnt, col, val)
                    else:
                        sheet2.write(page_cnt, col, val)
                page_cnt += 1
            page_cnt += 1
            if tab_rows >= sheet_size:
                tab_rows = 0
                tab_cnt = 1
                sheet1 = new_book.add_sheet('tables-' + str(index))
                sheet1.write(0, 0, 'File')
                sheet1.write(0, 1, 'Code')
                sheet1.write(0, 2, 'Date')
                sheet1.write(0, 3, 'Page')
                sheet1.write(0, 4, 'Method')
    
            if page_rows >= sheet_size:
                page_rows = 0
                page_cnt = 1
                sheet2 = new_book.add_sheet('pages-' + str(index))
                sheet2.write(0, 0, 'File')
                sheet2.write(0, 1, 'Code')
                sheet2.write(0, 2, 'Date')
                sheet2.write(0, 3, 'Page')
                sheet2.write(0, 4, 'Method')
    
        new_book.save('tables.xls')
    
    
  • 函数入口

    # 程序执行入口:主函数
    if __name__ == '__main__':
        # 此命令是为在Windows环境下打包exe时正确引入多进程模块而添加的,在Python解释器中运行代码这一行是不必要的,当然添加之后也无妨
        multiprocessing.freeze_support()
        # 程序运行需要的参数
        # paras
        base_dir = r'./'  # 程序工作目录设定为本程序所在的目录
        out_path = base_dir + r'\result.xls'  # 输出结果文件名称
        demo = base_dir + r'\Demo.xlsx'  # Demo文件名称
    
        # 新建noResult.txt文件,用来保存没有结果的PDF文件名称
        with open('noResult.txt', 'w', encoding='utf-8')as fp:
            fp.write(str(datetime.now()) + '\n')
    
        # 初始化Util类
        util = Util(base_dir + '\\test', out_path, demo)
        rules = util.load_demo()
        folder = util.load_folder()
    
        # 执行多进程,,但仅执行单线程模式时这里可替换为run函数
        multi_processor_run(batch_processor, run, folder, rules, util)
    
        # 保存结果:5000代表每个Excel的单个sheet最多5000行,超过则会新建sheet
        # save...
        re_format(5000)
        # 移除临时文件,这些临时文件在程序运行过程中会保存在当前目录的tmp文件夹内,其中每个Excel文件保存的是单个PDF文件的结果,最终这些结果将会通过re_format函数整合到一个Excel中,当想要保留这些结果时,可将下面一行代码注释掉
        shutil.rmtree('tmp')
    
    

7.完整项目代码下载地址

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